ECONOMIC PIPE DIAMETER
When designing a pipeline or a piping network for process plants, care should be taken to ensure the pipe and equipment are sized correctly. Specifying an oversized pump whilst under sizing the pipe diameter may increase pump purchase and operating costs. In contrast, specifying an undersized pump coupled with an oversized pipe diameter will reduce pump related costs, yet increase the purchase and installation costs of pipes. The correct combination of pump and pipe diameter need to be specified to present the most economical piping system.
This article aims to demonstrate a calculation method to determine with reasonable accuracy the most economical pipe diameter, taking into consideration the installation cost of pipe and pump operating cost throughout its design life. This article is complimentary can be downloaded by clicking the icon on the left and follow the instructions accordingly.
Feel free to download a copy of our engineering unit converter software for your own use. This software is very comprehensive in regard to the number of units it can convert and we provide it free-of-charge, free from malware, advertisement and royalty. To download, simply click on the icon of interest and follow the instructions accordingly. This unit conversion software free download and any support from Jimmy Lea are provided "AS IS" and without warranty, express or implied.
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ANSYS CFD VIEWER
ANSYS CFD Viewer software can be downloaded from this site for your own use. The ANSYS CFD Viewer displays 3-D graphics objects in an interactive window. This viewer is available under the terms of the license agreement included in the installation. To download, simply click on the icon of interest and follow the instructions accordingly.
CFD RESULTS VALIDATION
There are two engineering journals in this folder, which can be downloaded simply by clicking the icon on the left, namely:
Lea J , Suspension mixing tank-design heuristic, Chemical product and process modelling, Volume 4, Issue 1, Article 17, The Berkeley Electronic Press
Fort I , Comments on Lea J  “Suspension mixing tank-design heuristic” Manuscript 1419, Chemical product and process modelling, The Berkeley Electronic Press
In Lea , a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-assisted design approach has been employed to study the effectiveness of mixing tank geometrical configurations to suspend particles. In contrast, the paper Fort  deals with the analysis, via physical experimentation, of the process characteristics of agitated system with a pitched blade impeller and radial baffles (impeller power input and impeller pumping capacity) under turbulent regime of flow of agitated batch. Original experimental data are compared with results of CFD simulation in a pilot plant mixing system published in literature. These two papers concluded that the CFD results from Lea  and experimental results from Fort  are in good agreement.
AUTODESK INVENTOR VIEWER
Autodesk Inventor Viewer software (64-bit) can be downloaded from this site for your own use. This viewer displays 3-D graphics objects in an interactive window. This viewer is available under the terms of the license agreement included in the installation. To download, simply click on the icon of interest and follow the instructions accordingly.
SIZING PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
A pressure relief valve protects process equipment from the hazards of high (or low) pressure in a process. It operates by opening at a designated pressure and ejecting mass from the process equipment. The ejected mass contains energy - the removal of the energy reduces the process pressure. Sizing the pressure relief valve incorrectly may lead to undesirable results such as ejecting insufficient amount of mass as a function of time.
This article, published by American Institute of Engineers (AIChE), provides an introduction to sizing a pressure relief valve. The article is provided for educational purpose only and readers are recommended to consult experienced professional engineers to conduct this task.
HOW TO REDUCE HUMAN FAILURE
There is a recurring number that despite magnificent developments in technical safety doesn’t seem to go away. That number is 80, and it relates to the percentage of incidents that in some way has been contributed to by a human. It is a recurring average across industry and in different settings. Looking on the bright side, it means that there is huge scope to make a significant improvement. So how can we reduce the rate at which people contribute to incidents? The first step is to recognise that human failure is not random, but systematically linked to the tasks that people perform, the equipment they use, and the characteristics of the work environment. By understanding these elements it is possible to reduce the potential for errors to occur in the first instance, or at least to pre-empt them so that when they do occur, they can be safeguarded against.
This article, published by The Chemical Engineer, provides an overview of human failure, the factors that contribute to it and the process by which the risks can be reduced.