Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics and numerical analysis that focuses on the numerical simulation of fluid flows. It involves the use of computer algorithms, mathematical models and numerical methods to solve and analyse complex fluid flow problems. CFD plays a crucial role in understanding and predicting the behaviour of fluids (liquids, gases, or multiphase flows) in various engineering and scientific applications.
The key aspects of CFD are:
Governing Equations: CFD is based on the fundamental laws of physics, namely conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. These governing equations are known as the Navier-Stokes equations, and they describe the behaviour of fluid flow in both steady-state and transient conditions.
Numerical Discretisation: To solve the Navier-Stokes equations, CFD involves the discretization of the continuous governing equations into a discrete form, such as finite difference, finite volume, or finite element methods.
Boundary Conditions: The behaviour of fluids at boundaries is critical in CFD simulations. Properly defining boundary conditions is essential to represent real-world scenarios accurately.
Turbulence Modelling: Turbulent flows are common in many practical situations but are highly complex and challenging to simulate accurately. Various turbulence models, such as Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES), are employed to handle turbulent flows.
Mesh Generation: The computational domain needs to be divided into a grid of cells or elements. This grid is called the mesh, and its quality and refinement significantly impact the accuracy and computational cost of the simulation.
CFD allows engineers and researchers to explore different design scenarios and assess their performance without the need for expensive and time-consuming physical prototypes. It is an indispensable tool in modern engineering and scientific research, enabling better designs and understanding of fluid behaviour in various applications.
Employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation technology offers a wide range of benefits across various industries and scientific fields.
Several of the key advantages include:
Cost-Effective Design Optimisation: CFD simulations allow engineers to explore numerous design variations and optimize their products without the need for physical prototypes. This reduces development costs, as expensive and time-consuming testing can be minimised or eliminated.
Faster Product Development: CFD enables quicker evaluation of design concepts and iterations, accelerating the product development cycle. Companies can bring new and improved products to the market faster, gaining a competitive edge.
Insight into Complex Phenomena: CFD provides a deeper understanding of fluid flow behaviour, including turbulence, heat transfer and multiphase interactions, which may be difficult or impossible to visualize or measure experimentally.
Improved Performance and Efficiency: CFD helps optimise the performance of devices, systems and processes, leading to increased efficiency, reduced energy consumption and better overall functionality.
Risk Reduction: By virtually testing and analysing various scenarios, CFD reduces the risk of unforeseen issues and failure during real-world implementation.
Access to Inaccessible Environments: CFD enables the study of flows in situations where physical measurement is challenging or dangerous, such as in extreme temperatures, high pressures or hazardous environments.
Environmental Impact Assessment: CFD is used to analyse and mitigate environmental impacts, such as air and water pollution dispersion and assess the effects of emissions on the environment.
Optimisation of Industrial Processes: In industrial settings, CFD can help optimise manufacturing processes, fluid handling and chemical reactions, leading to increased productivity and reduced waste.
Aerospace and Automotive Advancements: CFD plays a vital role in designing aircraft with improved aerodynamics, reducing drag and fuel consumption. It also aids in optimising automotive shapes for better fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.
Medical Applications: CFD simulations are used in medical research to study blood flow, respiratory patterns and drug delivery systems, leading to advancements in treatments and medical devices.
Climate and Environmental Studies: CFD is employed in climate modelling to understand large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows, providing valuable insights into climate patterns and environmental changes.
Educational and Research Tool: CFD serves as an educational and research tool, allowing students and researchers to explore fluid flow phenomena and develop new models and methodologies.
Overall, the use of CFD simulation technology enhances engineering and scientific capabilities, fosters innovation and contributes to more sustainable and efficient solutions in various fields.
As an engineering design specialist, we have provided value-add professional engineering services to clients within the built environment such as an airport, chemical & petrochemical including the storage and transportation of cryogenic fluids, defence & security, food & beverage, hydrogen, manufacturing, marine & offshore, mining & mineral processing such as hydrodynamic studies, oil & gas including the storage and supply of liquefied natural gas (LNG), pharmaceutical, renewable energy, semiconductor and water & wastewater industries. Besides offering engineering services, we are also one of the leading CFD consulting companies providing advanced CFD simulation services. Whilst our engineering designers deliver practical real-world solutions, our simulation consultants ensure that what our engineering designers design will work in the real-world setting the first time. We have delivered many projects within the Asia Pacific region and thus we are providing these downloadable files as one of the ways of giving back to the engineering profession. There are four categories of download available, namely: