Skid-mounted Unit - Jimmy Lea
Process Plant Design - Jimmy Lea
Skid-mounted Unit - Jimmy Lea
Skid-mounted Unit - Jimmy Lea
Skid-mounted Unit - Jimmy Lea
Modular Design & Fabrication - Jimmy Lea
Process Plant Design - Jimmy Lea
Modular Design & Fabrication - Jimmy Lea

​​​​In general, our deliverables for process plant design includes:

Design Initiation

- Kick-off meeting with client's team

- Site visit

- Design execution plan which includes Gantt chart

Process Design

- Process design criteria

- Mass & energy balance

- Process calculations

- Functional specification

- Internal design review

- Process engineering design review with client

- HAZOP with client

Mechanical Design

- Lists: valves, lines, spares

- Mechanical datasheets

- Mechanical engineering calculations

- Piping and fittings design

- Material-take-off (MTO) lists

- Mechanical engineering design review with client

Structural Design

- Structural engineering calculations

- Structural lists

- Structural engineering design review with client

​Electrical Design

- Electrical studies and reports
- Instrument list eg pressure, flowrate, temperature and level
- Electrical datasheets
- Electrical engineering calculations
- Electrical design
- Electrical lists

- Material-take-off (MTO) lists
- Package SOWs
- Electrical engineering design review with client


- Process flow diagrams
- Piping & instrumentation diagrams
- 2D and 3D plant layout
- General arrangement (GA), piping, platforms and structures
- Detailed pipe routing and support design
- Mechanical drawings - isometrics
- Detailed plant layout design
- Mechanical drawings
- Electrical drawings
- Pipe, site, equipment and plant labelling
- Structural concrete drawings
- Structural steel drawings

Fundamental document

- Design basis

One of the modular plant design projects which our consulting engineers delivered involved designing a modular unit which consisted of a stainless steel tank, skid structure and ladder. This modular design also consists of pumps, instrumentation and process control, pipe and fittings. The project started off by developing the design basis and then completing the process engineering design and mechanical engineering design components.

Process engineering design
- pipe sizing
- calculating pressure drop by simulation
- multiphase process calculations
- selecting and sizing valves
- selecting and sizing instrumentation
- developing the functional specification for process control
- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiphase simulations

Mechanical engineering design
- mechanical design of tank, skid structure and ladder
- mechanical stress calculations
- specifying nozzles and appropriate flanges
- pipe material and schedule selection
- pipe fittings selection
- pipe routing
- developing the layout
- finite element analysis (FEA) structural simulations

​​The Australian Standards applied in this modular plant design were:

- Electrical performance according to EN60034-1
- Hydraulic performance according to ISO9906
- Mechanical seal according to 12756 & ISO 3069
- International protection marking, IP Code IEC standard 60529

Skid & Ladder
- AS 4100:1998 Steel structures
- AS 1657:2018 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - 

Design, construction and installation
- AS 1170:2007 Structural design actions
- AS 1554:2004 Structural steel welding

- AS 1692:2006 Steel tanks for flammable & combustible liquids

- AS 2129:2000 Flanges for pipes, valves and fittings
- AS 4130:2009 Polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure application
- AS NZS 2033:2008 Installation of polyethylene pipe systems
- AS 4041:2006 Pressure piping
- AS 1345:1995 Identification of the contents of pipes conduits and ducts

IP Rating
- AS 1939:1990 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment (IP Code)

- AS IEC 61882:2003 Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP studies) Application guide

- AS 1100.101:1992 Technical drawing - General principles
- AS 1100.201:1992 Technical drawing part 201 Mechanical engineering drawing​

Since the introduction of steel-hulled vessels around 120 years ago, water has been used as ballast to stabilise vessels at sea. Ballast water is pumped in to maintain safe operating conditions throughout a voyage. This practice reduces stress on the hull, provides transverse stability, improves propulsion and manoeuvrability, and compensates for weight changes in various cargo load levels and due to fuel and water consumption. Whilst ballast water is important, the uptake and discharge cycles may pose serious problems to the marine ecosystem due to the swapping of microorganisms which include bacteria, microbes, small invertebrates, eggs, cysts and larvae of various species. The transferred species may survive to establish a reproductive population in the host environment, becoming invasive, out-competing native species and multiplying into pest proportions. To resolve this issue, the international maritime organisation (IMO) launched the Ballast Water Management Convention in 2004 effective on 8 September 2017. The convention which was ratified by 30 states that represented 35% of the world’s merchant shipping tonnage, stated that ballast water must be treated to IMO Regulations D-2 discharge limits before it can be discharged. As an engineering design firm, we will support our client in the shipping industry to meet these requirements through modular design & fabrication.

IMO Regulations D-2 specifies that:
For organisms larger or equal to 50micron, vessels can only discharge less than 10 viable organisms/m3.
For organisms smaller than 50micron but larger or equal to 10 micron, vessels can only discharge 10 viable organisms/mL.
For organisms smaller than 10micron, specific concentrations are provided for each microbe.

Jimmy Lea, being one of the few simulation-based engineering design firms, provides modular design & fabrication of an effective and efficient skid-mounted ballast water treatment system (BWTS). Our system focuses on filter units + UV photoreactor because these technologies are:

(1) inherently safe and simple to operate
(2) does not require chemicals
(3) does not create any carcinogenic by-products and
(4) unaffected by salinity, temperature, pH or organic loading.

We differentiate ourselves from other engineering firms in the sense that all our designs are supported by in-house simulation technologies to ensure effective & efficient systems. We customise our BWTS to suit whatever flow rates required. Our system will ensure ship operators meet IMO Regulations D-2 ballast water discharge limits.  

Modular Design & Fabrication - Jimmy Lea
Process Plant Design - Jimmy Lea
Skid-mounted Unit - Jimmy Lea
Process Plant Design - Jimmy Lea


Skid-mounted Unit - Jimmy Lea
Process Plant Design - Jimmy Lea


A process plant consultants, our plant design services, supported by our in-house simulation consultants, include designing robust process control system for clients. This short article provide an example of how our process control and instrumentation design overcame an engineering challenge. A mixer requires a precise temperature control in the accuracy of ± 1 degree Celsius. To achieve this process control, we designed a cascade control system as shown in the piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID). Cascade control system consists of two or more controllers in series and have only a single, independently adjustable set point, that of the primary (master) controller. The main value of having secondary (slave) controllers is that they act as the first line of defence against process perturbations, preventing these upsets from entering and upsetting the primary process. If there were no slave controller, an upset due to a change in water temperature would not be detected until it had upset the master measurement. In this configuration, the cascade slave detects the occurrence of such upsets and immediately counteracts them so that the master measurement is not upset and the primary loop is not even aware that an upset occurred in the properties of the utilities.​​

​In this particular project, to achieve a precise mixer temperature, the controlled process variable, mixer temperature, whose response is slow to changes in the heat transfer medium flow, manipulated variable, is allowed to adjust the set point of a secondary loop, whose response to hot water flow changes is rapid. In this scenario, the mixer temperature controller (master) varies the set point of the jacket temperature control loop (slave). The objective of the slave loop in this scenario is to correct for all outside disturbances, without allowing them to affect the mixer temperature. For example, on a basic control system, if the control valve is faulty or if the temperature or pressure of the heat transfer media changes, this would eventually upset mixer temperature. However, with a cascade control system, the slave loop would detect the resulting upset at the jacket outlet earlier and would correct it before it had a chance to upset the master. Since cascade control system will not function properly if the master loop is faster than the slave loop, the process lags were distributed in such a way that the time constant of the slave is one tenth that of the master. In this scenario, the slave controller is used to maintain the jacket outlet (and not inlet) temperature, because in this way the jacket and its dynamic response is included in the slave loop. Another advantage of this configuration is that it removes the principal nonlinearity of the system from the master loop, because mixer temperature is linear with jacket-outlet temperature. The end result is the temperature of the mixer is highly consistent as monitored in the SCADA system.​​