One of the plant engineering design projects which we delivered involved designing a modular unit which consisted of a stainless steel tank, skid structure and ladder. This modular design also consists of pumps, instrumentation and process control, pipe and fittings. The project started off by developing the design basis and then completing the process engineering design and mechanical engineering design components.

Process engineering design

- pipe sizing

- calculating pressure drop by simulation

- multiphase process calculations

- selecting and sizing valves

- selecting and sizing instrumentation

- developing the functional specification for process control

- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) multiphase simulations

Mechanical engineering design

- mechanical design of tank, skid structure and ladder

- mechanical stress calculations

- specifying nozzles and appropriate flanges

- pipe material and schedule selection

- pipe fittings selection

- pipe routing

- developing the layout

- finite element analysis (FEA) structural simulations

Jimmy Lea, being one of the few simulation-based engineering design firms, provides modular design & fabrication of an effective and efficient skid-mounted ballast water treatment system (BWTS). Our system focuses on filter units + UV photoreactor because these technologies are:

(1) inherently safe and simple to operate
(2) does not require chemicals
(3) does not create any carcinogenic by-products and
(4) unaffected by salinity, temperature, pH or organic loading.

We differentiate ourselves from other engineering firms in the sense that all our designs are supported by in-house simulation technologies to ensure effective & efficient systems. We customise our BWTS to suit whatever flow rates required. Our system will ensure ship operators meet IMO Regulations D-2 ballast water discharge limits. 



Since the introduction of steel-hulled vessels around 120 years ago, water has been used as ballast to stabilise vessels at sea. Ballast water is pumped in to maintain safe operating conditions throughout a voyage. This practice reduces stress on the hull, provides transverse stability, improves propulsion and manoeuvrability, and compensates for weight changes in various cargo load levels and due to fuel and water consumption. Whilst ballast water is important, the uptake and discharge cycles may pose serious problems to the marine ecosystem due to the swapping of microorganisms which include bacteria, microbes, small invertebrates, eggs, cysts and larvae of various species. The transferred species may survive to establish a reproductive population in the host environment, becoming invasive, out-competing native species and multiplying into pest proportions. To resolve this issue, the international maritime organisation (IMO) launched the Ballast Water Management Convention in 2004 effective on 8 September 2017. The convention which was ratified by 30 states that represented 35% of the world’s merchant shipping tonnage, stated that ballast water must be treated to IMO Regulations D-2 discharge limits before it can be discharged. As an engineering design firm, we will support our client in the shipping industry to meet these requirements through modular design & fabrication.

IMO Regulations D-2 specifies that:
For organisms larger or equal to 50micron, vessels can only discharge less than 10 viable organisms/m3.
For organisms smaller than 50micron but larger or equal to 10 micron, vessels can only discharge 10 viable organisms/mL.
For organisms smaller than 10micron, specific concentrations are provided for each microbe.