- studying the interaction of projectiles impacting on a single or composite material
- analysing the consequences of blast fragments interacting with nearby structures such as flammable gas tanks, window glass and automobiles
- assisting in the design and development of ballistic vest, armoured personnel carrier, warships and tanks
Explicit dynamics analysis is a numerical simulation technique used in engineering and physics to study the behaviour of complex systems under dynamic loading conditions. It is a type of finite element analysis (FEA) that focuses on simulating transient and highly nonlinear phenomena, such as high-velocity impacts, explosions, crash events and other scenarios where the time scale of the response is important.
In explicit dynamics analysis, the equations of motion for the system are integrated in small time steps, explicitly considering the time-dependent effects of applied forces, material properties, and boundary conditions. Unlike implicit methods, which solve for equilibrium at each time step and are better suited for stable and slow-loading situations, explicit dynamics directly integrates the equations of motion and is more appropriate for fast and transient events.
The key characteristics of explicit dynamics analysis are:
Time-Dependent Loading: The loading conditions vary rapidly over time and the behaviour of the system needs to be analysed at each time step.
Short Duration Events: The analysis focuses on short-lived events where inertia and other dynamic effects significantly influence the system's response.
Large Deformations: The analysis accounts for large deformations and in some cases, materials may undergo significant changes in their mechanical properties during the simulation.
Contact and Impact: Explicit dynamics analysis is suitable for modelling and simulating contact and impact between multiple bodies with varying degrees of penetration and separation.
Applications of explicit dynamics analysis include automotive crash testing, aerospace structural analysis during bird strikes, ballistic impacts, drop tests of consumer products and various other impact and explosion-related simulations.
Performing explicit dynamics analysis offers several benefits that make it a valuable tool in engineering and scientific simulations. Some of the key advantages include:
Accurate Representation of Dynamic Events: Explicit dynamics analysis is well-suited for simulating high-speed and transient events accurately. It captures the complex interactions, large deformations and rapid changes in forces and velocities that occur during dynamic loading scenarios.
Improved Understanding of Dynamic Behaviour: By simulating the behaviour of a system under dynamic conditions, engineers and researchers can gain a deeper understanding of how it responds to various loads, impacts and collisions. This insight is crucial for optimising designs and improving safety.
Predictive Capabilities: Explicit dynamics analysis enables engineers to predict the behaviour of structures and components under real-world dynamic conditions without physically testing each scenario. This capability helps identify potential failure points and design weaknesses early in the development process.
Reduced Prototyping Costs: By performing virtual simulations, engineers can reduce the need for physical prototypes and expensive testing. This leads to cost savings and faster development cycles.
Design Optimisation: Explicit dynamics analysis allows engineers to explore different design alternatives quickly and efficiently. They can evaluate the impact of design changes on the dynamic behaviour of the system and choose the most suitable configuration.
Safety Evaluation: For applications involving human safety, such as automotive crash tests, explicit dynamics analysis helps assess the potential risks and optimise designs to meet safety standards effectively.
Material and Failure Analysis: Explicit dynamics analysis can predict material behaviour under extreme conditions, such as impact or explosion. It helps identify potential failure modes, such as cracks, fractures or excessive deformation.
Impact of Loads on Assemblies: In multi-body systems or assemblies, explicit dynamics analysis can study how components interact with each other during dynamic events, providing insights into the overall performance.
Time Efficiency: Though explicit dynamics simulations can be computationally intensive, they are generally more time-efficient than conducting physical tests for complex dynamic scenarios.
Visualisation of Complex Phenomena: The graphical output of explicit dynamics simulations provides visual insights into the dynamic behaviour of the system, making it easier to communicate results and understand complex phenomena.
Thus, explicit dynamics analysis is a powerful tool that enables engineers and researchers to gain critical insights into the dynamic behaviour of systems, improve designs and ensure safety and reliability across a wide range of applications.
As one of the leading engineering consultants providing crash simulation consulting services, our PhD-qualified crash simulation consultants employ high-accuracy simulation package to perform hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) study. Our reports helped to expedite the design and development of HVM barrier systems more economically relative to conducting physical crash testings. The model setup, simulation runs and processing of results are conducted in accordance to the guidelines laid down by IWA 14-1 and PAS 68.
For products that need to survive from short-duration (ms, µs, ns) severe loadings, we provide design improvement via explicit dynamics analysis. Our analysis enables you to capture the physics of short- duration events for products that undergo highly nonlinear, transient dynamic forces at a fraction of the cost relative to physical testing. Our explicit dynamics consultants employ simulation package with algorithms based on first principles accurately predict complex responses, such as large material deformations and/or failure and interactions between bodies. The comprehensive reports that we generate shows how a structure responds when subjected to severe loadings. The two main areas of our services are high velocity impact and low velocity impact.
- hostile vehicle mitigation
- design and fabrication of crash barriers
- attack from vehicle borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED)