The critical location of the threat is a function of the site, the building layout and the security measures in place. For vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED), the critical locations are considered to be at the closest point that a vehicle can approach on each side, assuming that all security measures are in place. Typically, this is a vehicle parked along the curb directly outside the building or at the entry control point where inspection takes place. The first step in predicting blast effects on a building is to predict blast loads on the structure. For a detonation that is exterior to a building, it is the blast pressure pulse that causes damage to the building. Because the pressure pulse varies based on standoff distance, angle of incidence and reflected pressure over the exterior of the building, the blast load prediction should be performed at multiple threat locations. However, normally we employ the worst case scenario for decision making.
An approach is to first obtain the blast load which can be achieved using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and simulation. After the blast load has been predicted, damage level can be evaluated by explosive testing, engineering analysis or both. Often, testing is cost and time prohibitive for practical engineering. Instead, engineering analysis is performed but to accurately represent the response of an explosive event, the analysis needs to be time dependent and account for nonlinear behaviour. Our blast consultants approach is the use explicit dynamics analysis (EDA) which captures the interaction phenomena between the blast load and structural integrity of the building as shown in the sequenced pictures. To prevent unnecessary spending, our blast consultancy firm employs explicit dynamics analysis to perform blast analysis to minimise overdesign and therefore to provide recommendations with surgical accuracy. Through explicit dynamics analysis, our blast consultants simulate the response of materials to short duration severe loadings from impact, high pressure or explosions. Explicit dynamics analysis is designed for simulating large material deformation or failure. Using explicit dynamics analysis, our security and blast consultants model complex physical phenomena such as the interaction of liquids, solids and gases; the phase transitions of materials; and the propagation of shock and blast waves.
Our blast analysis will provide the most authentic representation of an infrastructure's ability to resist the dynamic blast loading and will produce the most cost-effective retrofits wherever the strength of the system is being evaluated. This principle of performing infrastructure protection design supported by our advanced simulation approach means that our blast consultancy firm delivers an infrastructure protection design that is balanced.
The major costs to consider in protection are those associated with standoff distance and building component costs. In general, the cost to provide infrastructure protection will decrease as the standoff distance between an infrastructure and a threat increases. Defining an appropriate standoff distance for a given infrastructure to resist explosive blast effects is difficult. Often, in urban settings, it is either impossible, impractical or cost prohibitive to obtain appropriate standoff distance. Adding to the difficulty is the fact that defining appropriate standoff distance requires a prediction of the explosive mass which in the case of terrorism, is tenuous at best.
In contrast, cost reduction achieved by decreasing standoff and perimeter length must be evaluated against the comparative increased cost of other solutions, such as hardening the building, providing more guards, increasing camera surveillance, relocating the facility, or relocating key building occupants to interior locations. These costs must be evaluated with respect to achieving an acceptable level of risk.
AUSTRALIA SINGAPORE ASIA PACIFIC REGION
As experienced explosive blast consultants, we cannot help but realised that almost every day the media reports terrorist attacks in different parts of the world at times with dire consequences. Since the attacks on the United States’ World Trade Center, terrorism has become a significant concern for many governments and agencies. In our view as a blast consultancy firm, a terrorist attack can no longer be viewed as something that will only happen to others and security against terrorist threat is now on every government’s agenda. The protection of buildings and infrastructure via professional security and blast analysis, has become one of the most important components not only because they are the preferred targets of terrorist attacks, but also because they represent an organisation’s major assets and wealth.
Buildings are constructed today in accordance with relevant building codes that lack substantial design considerations intended to prevent or mitigate the impact caused by explosive blast or chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attacks. Building collapse or structural damages sustained can have severe impact on the building’s owner, all sectors of the economy, or even worse, result in significant loss of life. Hence, today’s building designs must integrate the traditional code and guidelines with safety and security measures along with other environmental and economic considerations. The protective function of such integrated building design aims to mitigate the risks from hazards and threats that may cause building damages, harm occupants or passers-by, impair critical function, and inflict economic and other losses. Integrated building design must therefore rely on the best available information about prevailing risks and the best protective measure that can be deployed against these risks. Apart from enhancing building resilience, we can also predict and thus conquer uncertainties.
Through our infrastructure protection design services, our blast consultants will identify the principal components of risk, analyses their relative magnitude and provides guidance to building owners with respect to cost-benefit decision making. Our blast consultants will deliver reports which address the following topics:
- Preliminary facility design development
- Threat, consequences, vulnerability and risk assessment
- Blast effect analysis
- Structural resilience study
- Security protection plan
In evaluating any protective measure, our blast consultants will consider numerous factors so that realistic outcomes are accurately determined. Key factors include:
Threat: credible threat must be considered. For normal security applications, we will evaluate (unless otherwise directed by the client) the effects of homemade explosives (HME) and improvised explosive devices (IED). These systems are typically low yield in terms of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence but is sufficient to produce high blast output capable of significant damage when deployed against ordinary commercial structures. The evaluation takes into account whether the IED is man-portable or vehicle mounted (on motor bike, car, delivery van or large truck) and whether the device is to function with stand-off from the target, in contact with or inside the building. Location as well as size and type of weapon are crucial in determining the severity of damage caused. In our modelling, we will take into account both the effects of blast and fragmentation from structural failure.
Target: materials of construction and building design are crucial aspects when considering response to shock loading from blast as well as fragment produced by failing structural components. Key considerations are the protection of personnel and the protection of business infrastructure. This includes whether protective measures are installed as retrofit or during construction phase. Overall security assessment must include not only mechanical aspects of existing or proposed architecture but also on-going security arrangements and installations.
Intent: the intents of credible threats include:
- Stop or interrupt business
- Maximize injury to personnel (blast, fire, fragment attack)
- Cause significant structural damage to buildings
- Complete destruction of target
Although the terrorists may aim for complete structural destruction, this is usually extremely difficult to achieve with improvised weapon systems. However, significant damage can still be inflicted on building and people from both the primary (weapon borne) attack and secondary effects (such as fire or subsequent failure of electrical or water systems). Only through a complete appraisal of the building, protective and security measures can a realistic business threat assessment be provided. Without this information the value of considering or installing any protective measure is diminished. By performing an in-depth and thorough analysis, which includes sophisticated computer modelling, we can advise on security measures which represent the best value for money outcome for given threat levels whilst maximising protective effect. Within infrastructure resilience, our blast consultants have the capability to model, simulate and analyse the following items:
- Applicable to a wide range of terrorist events involving explosives
- Minor or major structural damage
- Potential for collapse
- Window fragmentation
- Determine the expected damage
- Vulnerability of stored ammunition store
- Missile attack, aircraft impact, car bomb
- Street blasts, building blasts
- Provides insight into ways damage could be mitigated through design and protection
- Determine the protective performance of structures, buildings, vehicles and body armour
- Advanced materials – glass (including laminations PVB), ceramics, polymers
- Risk mitigation measures
In the design of a secured building, our security and blast consultants will consider:
- Location of building of interest and proximity to surrounding buildings
- Site specific hazard analysis
- Access to site
- Standoff distant
- Location of parking
- Natural and/or manmade barriers such as bollards, rising wedge, gates
- Building orientation
- Height of buildings
- Existent of building re-entrant (trapping blast waves)
- Existent of courtyard etc
- Irregular 3D building forms
- Large roof overhangs
- Ground floor elevation
- Elimination of overhangs for low-rise buildings
- The use of pitched roof on low-rise buildings
- Locating key assets within the building
- Separating unsecured areas from key assets
- Locations of personnel work areas
- Isolating vulnerable areas from key assets
- Staggering doors
- Venting of vulnerable interior spaces to the outside of the building
- Locating security personnel
- Minimising the number of size of windows in a façade
- Minimising window-to-wall ratio
Building Structural Considerations
- Building material resilience against simulated blast
- Thickness and ratings of wall and support structures
- Response of structure design against simulated blast
- Façade and roof walls
- The use of major glazing against VBIED
- Window glass types (annealed, wire-reinforced, heat-strengthened, TTG and PVB)
- Window anchorage to hold the glass in response to blast wave
- Use of blast curtain to retard flying glass fragments
- Mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems
- Protection for electrical system
- Protection for fuel, gas tanks and pipes
- Protection for emergency generators